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Fashion Falters Following Confusing Characterization of Sansa Stark



Contributor at the Fandomentals
Caroline is a lawyer by day, geeky media fan and critic by night, afternoon, and lunch hour. Caroline enjoys long walks on quiet beaches so she can mentally over-analyze fictional characters and settings, and candlelit dinners that don't cause a glare on her TV screen.
Spoiler alert: Game of Thrones season 1-6, some minor A Song of Ice and Fire descriptions

Jumping off from our last long look at Marg Tyrell, we now turn our attention to the little dove of the north, “Sansa Stark”. If you have not already read Kylie’s and Julia’s piece on the season 6 Winterhell plotline, I suggest you do at some point to fully understand my salt with Sansa’s character and, in turn, her fashion design.

To recap a few key definitions:

  • Watsonian analysis: looking at the way a costume functions within the universe; how it is explained in the show, and
  • Doylist analysis: looking at the reasons a costume came to be as a form of art created by real people; analyzing and critiquing real-world explanations

Keep in mind, too, that we should always ask if a costume functions how it is supposed to. A beautiful costume that fulfills its purpose survives both Watsonian and Doylist analysis better than one that completely misses the mark. Costuming adds or detracts from the credibility and integrity of the overall work, and whether it adds or detracts depends on if it is believable in the context.

So let’s jump right on in to our next section of A Song of Pins and Needles.


The North is Where Fashion Goes to Die

Sansa made this dress – don’t be proud of that, honey.

We start off blundering out of the gate, with “Sansa Stark’s” first few bizarre season one dresses. There isn’t anything worthy of analysis here in and of itself – there are just two points I want to note for future reference.

First, Sansa’s feast dress is episode one is ugly. I mean, what is even happening at the neckline? Someone tied knots in fabric and called it a design. Luckily for us this style quickly disappears and, as far as I can tell, never reappears in the remaining seasons. Thank the gods.

The objective ugliness of this dress makes me think Cersei is pulling a little Regina George on us when she compliments it.

Second, Sansa specifically states that she made this dress herself. She is proud of the fact that she created her own garment, and Cersei even suggests Sansa might make a beautiful dress for her – the queen – one day. It is seeded from the start that Sansa is a talented seamstress and embroiderer. This is part of her identity as a northern lady within the show’s cannon. Put this tidbit in your pocket for later.


The Wedding Dress I Want to Love

The first exquisite costume we get on “Sansa Stark” is her wedding dress when she is married to Tyrion Lannister. Before we get into the disappointing analysis, let’s all take a moment to appreciate the fantastic craftsmanship it took to create this gown, including the sewing and embroidery skill.

Gold brocade with a heavily embroidered band on the bodice.

#embroiderygoals (JK I mean life goals)

There is no denying this is an exquisite costume. And it doesn’t suffer from Marg-Went-to-Kleinfeld syndrome – that is, Sansa’s gown fits in the time period. I love this dress, but it would be weird for me to wear it as a bride to a modern wedding.

Overall, I think it is successful at what it’s trying to do. The gown is meant to be a very fancy dress for the wedding of some very important people. It doesn’t stick out like a sore thumb, it doesn’t break the suspension of disbelief, and the quality is excellent. This is one of my favorite dresses in the series, and when I first put it on the list to analyze, I thought it’d be a rare moment for us to celebrate Clapton & Co.’s design aesthetic.

But like *almost* everything else on this show, even this beautiful design crumbles under mild scrutiny.


Watsonian “In-verse” analysis: What even are feudal houses anyway?

Sansa Stark’s first wedding dress falls short under Watsonian analysis because of its color and embroidery patterns. It is otherwise the right kind of gown – elegant, extravagant, and chronologically appropriate. But coloration and imagery matter in a society governed by the rule of feudal lords with house colors and sigils. We have multiple examples of people referring to each other as their house sigil, including the Lannisters’ constantly referring to themselves as “lions” and the Starks always being called “wolves”. And lest we ever forget the importance of house sigils as vessels for metaphor, season one gives us two scenes that drive the point home. The first is a book scene used to foreshadow events to come.

And the second is a show “original” copy/paste of the book’s metaphor.

Get the metaphor? Get it? It’s a stag? Get it? Eh??

The fact is that color and imagery matter in this society because both are part of the larger PR campaign of each house as the people within vie for power. They are like a team color and a team mascot – something simple everyone can rally around and emulate. More importantly, they let everyone know whose team you’re on. Which is why banners are particularly important in battle, which D&D care about profusely.

The function of color and imagery in the Westerosi wedding context is to show a woman passing from her father’s house to her husband’s house, solidifying her future children’s place as part of her husband’s house. In the context of major marriages – where large, powerful houses are marrying each other – the imagery of both houses is equally important to advertise to joining of great wealth. We see this in the show with Margaery, who wears a distinctly Tyrell wedding dress with (sort of) Tyrell colors and Tyrell imagery, with hand-rolled roses all over the gown. The next function is to show the moving of the woman from one house to another. We see this in the show with the “cloaking” ceremony, wherein the husband places his family’s cloak on the wife. This happens once to Sansa (the northern lords also forgot about the cloaking ceremony, YOLO) and once to Margeary. It is the literal covering of the woman in the husband’s colors, showing the lords, ladies, and small folk alike that she is part of a new team.

The struggle with Sansa’s first wedding dress, then, is two-fold: first, she starts off in her husband’s house colors, even though she is part of a major house; and second, there is only one cloak. Granted, that second problem is true in all the marriages we see, but it is particularly present here because of the dress itself.

Sansa Stark should be wearing the Stark house colors and imagery on her wedding day, period. It does not matter that she’s a prisoner of the Lannisters. She is a Stark, and the Lannisters, in fact, want to emphasize her Stark-ness to solidify their hold on the north through this marriage. As everyone says, Sansa is the key to the north. With her married to a Lannister, the Lannisters take over Winterfell and its accompanying wardenship. It is vital that she is known as and believed to be Sansa Stark. She, therefore, should wear her house colors for the wedding.

For what it’s worth, this isn’t a novel idea. The source material provides the exact description and reasoning for a Stark-colored outfit.

“…the gown itself was ivory samite and cloth-of-silver, and lined with silvery satin. The points of the long dagged sleeves almost touched the ground when she lowered her arms… The bodice was slashed in front almost to her belly, the deep vee covered over with a panel of ornate Myrish lace in dove-grey…”

And a bit later, the maiden’s cloak:

“…a long cloak of white velvet heavy with pearls. A fierce direwolf was embroidered upon it in silver thread. Sansa looked at it with sudden dread. ‘Your father’s colors,’ said Cersei, as they fastened it about her neck with a slender silver chain.” A Storm of Swords

The accompanying issue here is point two: there is only one cloak. The purpose of two cloaks is to drive home the visual to the audience (i.e., the smallfolk and people over whom the powerful marrying couple have power) that the wife’s power is subsumed into the husband’s house. The physical removal of her father’s cloak and replacement with her husband’s cloak symbolizes that transfer of power, which is the whole purpose of a wedding in Westeros.

In Marg’s marriage, while we don’t have two cloaks, we at least get a similar visual because of the colorization: Marg is wearing (sort of) green, and that rose-bedazzled gown is physically covered by the Lannister cloak. Sansa, by contrast, does not give us that visual. Since she already starts out wearing her husband’s colors (gold – and red, if you count her hair), and since she does not have a house Stark cloak, we don’t get the imagery of the Lannisters taking the Stark power for themselves. Without the symbolism for the masses, the entire purpose of the wedding is undercut.

Within the context of show!Westeros, it doesn’t make sense for Sansa to have a wedding dress in her husband’s colors. We know this because of Marg’s dress, which is so thoroughly Tyrell, and even Marg’s second wedding dress which tries to place her as part of the royal family already by being gold. Marg’s position as someone who has a legitimate claim to the queenship based on her marriage to Joffrey was vital to her image and her marriage to Tommen, so it makes sense for her colors to be Baratheon.

The same issues appear with the imagery embroidered onto Sansa’s dress. The embroidery here is amazing, but it is inaccurate. Sansa should be wearing the symbol of her house, just like she should be wearing Stark colors. The embroidery on her dress actually includes the house symbols for the Tullys and the Starks AND the Lannisters! Her bodice is starting to look like Noah’s Ark.

Unfortunately, while this is one of the best quality gowns in the show (that brocade though!), it fails in its basic design. It certainly passes as a wedding dress, but the inconsistency it promotes forces us to continue to the second part of our analysis where we consider the real-life motivations behind the design.


Doylist “real-life” analysis: The Metacademy of the Arts Doesn’t Teach Sigils

Before we continue down the path of perpetual disappointment, we need to take a moment to appreciate the glorious angel who is Michelle Carragher. Much of the fantastic embroidery done on GoT is the product of Michelle Carragher’s incredible talent. If you ever want to experience jaw-dropping beauty somehow crafted from the fingers of a flesh-and-blood human, take a peek at Michelle Carragher’s website and her embroidery achievements. She is an embroidery god among us lowly pretenders, and she does a bang-up job on everything she touches.

It’s not Michelle Carragher’s fault – nor is it Michele Clapton’s – that she must work inside the skewed world created by D&D.

“For Sansa’s wedding dress the designer Michele Clapton wanted to have an embroidered band that wrapped around which symbolistically told Sansa’s life from the Tully and Stark beginnings to the entanglement with the Lannisters,” says Michelle, “The dress colour was still very much Sansa Stark and the embroidery had pale golden tones but woven through the story are ripe red pomegranates, the red colour symbolising the growing Lannister influence over her.”  Michelle Carragher

Here, we see the same problem that appeared with Marg’s wardrobe: the meta-seamstresses of Westeros strike again! Based on a previous reader comment, I now assume these are all graduates of the Metacademy of the Arts, located in Volantis on the same campus of the Metacademy of Medicine.

Lookin’ at you, Talisa.

The concept of telling a story through embroidery is cool. There’s an exceptional amount of detail that can go into embroidery that acts like an Easter-egg once the audience realizes it’s there. If done right, this sort of detail adds a lot of depth to the story, and it shows how much the creators care about every little detail. Plot-supportive, detailed but not-so-obvious surprises bolster the credibility of the creators and strengthen the consistency of the story. Consider Nibbler’s shadow in Futurama, or the various prophecies in A Song of Ice and Fire.

But here the embroidered story doesn’t make any sense. Who made this dress?? Is there a seamstress in King’s Landing who decided to include an act of resistance in a very important wedding dress, and nobody else noticed? Certainly none of the Lannisters commissioned the piece to have symbols of Tully fish and Stark wolves being eaten by lions. The whole point of a wedding is the legal passing of power through a woman from one house to the next, not to highlight the murders of her family members (especially murders the Lannisters don’t want to take credit for – the Red Wedding was against the gods). Who embroidered this in-verse?

And this embroidery story wouldn’t even be necessary is Sansa just had the cloak of her house. If you want to show a Stark being overtaken by a Lannister, then have a Lannister remove her house cloak and put his in its place! It’s almost like the source material already has a way to deal with this specific dilemma.

This is a cool idea with no backing. Just like Marg’s wedding dress, Sansa’s was almost well-executed but for enough in-verse believability to hold it up. It is symbolism done poorly. Symbolism should not break continuity, and this certainly does. Tywin Lannister would have blown a gasket if he realized the “symbolism” on his son’s wife’s wedding gown.

What could have made all the difference was the color choice. And here, again I wonder if anyone paid any mind to the source material at all. There was no reason for the costume department to stray into gold for this dress – the book clearly puts her in Stark colors, and the wedding dress would have made sense if it was Stark colors. The only explanation I can think of is that Clapton & Co. did not read the description of Sansa’s dress and just made their own how they chose. This becomes a greater likelihood as we see repeated instances of dresses that do not remotely resemble their book counterparts, like Marg’s wedding dress. There’s really no excuse to avoid the source material. They certainly didn’t improve on the design!

And last, there’s no excuse for these mis-matched patterns at the seams.

Get your shit together.


Inconspicuous Me

Before we jump into the Darth Sansa Warlock Costume and drown ourselves in exasperation, let’s take a look at a beautiful and confusing little detail of Sansa’s emo transformation. You may recall Sansa’s dazzlingly beautiful dress she wore to Marg’s wedding.

Much beauty. Very grace. Such wow.

She attended the Purple Wedding wearing purple (woah!) with little firefly clasps on her dress. As a side note, apparently there’s a whole thing about how Sansa’s jewelry is always fireflies and butterflies and shit, because that’s her spirit animal or something. I couldn’t find any direct quotes from Clapton & Co. on this, so I’m going to pray it’s a fan honeypot and leave it there. For the love of the seven, I hope it’s not something she actually said or intended.

Sansa is whisked away to the Eeyrie in this dress, where she later undergoes her emo evolution. One of her black dresses is this one, which appears in the tavern scene as she travels to Winterfell:

That looks familiar.

Notice the texture of the fabric, the cut of the bodice, and the firefly pins. You guessed it – this is the exact same dress that Sansa wore to the wedding, only dyed black! I actually don’t hate the idea of Sansa dying an outfit to be able to use it again, and if this were another show with more credibility, I would say this was an good example of a not-so-obvious detail that adds depth and continuity to the story. But this is GoT season five, they’ve lost all benefit of the doubt, and this particular attempt at detail just raises bad questions.

Where did Sansa get enough black dye to re-dye this dress? How multi-functional is this gown? It’s fancy enough for a wedding where she’s sitting at the dais with the king and queen, but also versatile for long-distance travel? Will no one recognize the style of dress, including the fuck-off little dragonfly pins, just because it’s dyed black? I mean, Sansa was literally right in front of a huge crowd of people all day. Also, dying the fabric a new color doesn’t make it less of a fancy fabric – the natural daughter of Petyr Baelish shouldn’t be wearing the same thing as Lady Sansa Stark/Lannister.

In addition to this weird detail, we have Sansa’s not-so-sublte super secret spy outfit. Here she is, not sticking out in a crowd at all:

All the common ladies wear this fashion! Wearing all black is normal for people not in the Night’s Watch! Black isn’t an important color for this socety meant for one specific group of people! EVERYTHING IS FINE DON’T LOOK AT ME.

This is not a spy movie. Wearing black does not make her undercover. Wearing black does make her stand out, since black is significant to this culture because of the Night’s Watch. The super secret spy outfit is not fooling anyone. Though I must say it is impeccably tailored.


Sansa Went to Hot Topic

Let’s get to the point: there is an endless amount of bullshittery about the Darth Sansa costume. I don’t find it worthy of Watsonian analysis because there is literally no way to tease out anything intellectually honest about it. This is a modern dress with modern details, sewn with modern techniques (i.e., machines), that was dropped into a medieval setting with no adequate in-world explanation. Where did Sansa get the fabric? How did she have this idea for a design? Why did she think black was appropriate for her disguise? How did she make the dress in such a short time? What is happening???

On the flip side, D&D and Clapton & Co. have tried to Doyle this shit up since the moment it appeared on screen. Their motives and explanations make no sense. Studying their explanations through the Doylist lens is where all the meaty analysis is here. Let’s start with the big quote from Michele Clapton:

David and Dan came to me with the idea of a transformation for Sansa. They wanted her to be her own woman rather than this victim. […] It’s meant to be as if she is somewhat reborn while mourning for all that she has lost. We know that she has the skill because we have seen her doing needlework from season one, but I liked the idea that she doesn’t want to sew anymore. The metal piece is really a miniature of Arya’s sword, Needle, and the idea is that there’s a ring that you stitch through and then that’s her weapon. I like that she carries it when she descends the stairs, now she’s armed and it’s a link to her family.

It’s so easy to make someone look strong, but if you don’t think about the story, it’s kind of a wasted gesture. She could have probably looked even more amazing if I had put the reasoned arguments of where it could have come from aside, but ultimately, it makes it a stronger look if it’s a more believable transition. – Michele Clapton

Seven save us, there’s a lot to unpack here. Starting from the top, the first issue is that D&D seem to think costume changes signify character growth. We’ve seen that happen a few times in the show – most notably the emerging of Cheryl from the husk of Carol – and it inherently isn’t a bad idea. When people change, the way they express themselves changes, too. I could buy these costume-changes-with-character-growth claims if and only if there was actual character growth that was (1) earned and (2) followed through on. Sansa gets her badass warlock costume because she’s so badass and her badassness is badass, but it’s followed by her stupid forced marriage and contrived sexual abuse. But she’s strong in the real way now because she has a badass costume change? She’s not going to be a victim anymore, right? D&D’s use of costume changes to signify growth is just disingenuous because the script ruins everything.

It should also be noted that this is around the time the Sansa Stark Construct begins to emerge, which has a direct affect on the explanations given by the creators.

The next issue is this concept that Sansa no longer wants to sew. This idea comes out of nowhere and has no Watsonian explanation. Sansa is an extremely talented seamstress! Remember that tidbit I told you to put in your pocket for later? Well pull it out now, and recall that Sansa has been seeded as an excellent seamstress since the very first episode. Sewing is important in this society because you otherwise would not have any clothes. At all. Being able to make your own clothing is a HUGE asset to yourself and your family. As a highborn lady, Sansa needs to not only be able to sew, but also be able to sew really well to make fancy dresses, which is what she is supposed to wear. This sewing dilemma is part of the strife between Sansa and Arya, as Arya does not fit the mold of a highborn lady because she lacks sewing skills.

Since there’s no reason for Sansa to no longer want to sew, there must be some reason the creators would put that motivation in her head. To me, this seems to be part of the misogynistic and toxically masculine pattern of D&D’s storytelling, even when they don’t realize it. Sewing is a woman’s job in Westerosi society. The counterpart job for men is metalwork, like how Gendry is a smith, making armor. If Sansa is going to be Strong in the D&D way – that is, “strong” with toxically masculine traits – she needs to stop sewing and start carrying a weapon. Hence, we have the notion that she no longer participates in a female activity and instead carries a small version of her sister’s sword with her.

I feel your disappointment, Brittany.

What confuses me (besides literally everything about this) is that they missed the opportunity to actually draw a fulfilling comparison between Sansa and Arya and how they navigate the world. Arya’s sword is called “Needle” in direct defiance of Sansa. As Arya says, “Sansa has her needle, now I’ll have my own.” This sets up a perfect opportunity for parallelism in themes, where each sister deals with the same theme (identity) through different means. By dealing with the same issue of their Stark identity in different settings, the reader/audience gets to see the similarities between the characters and how their identities as Starks largely define them, even when they are worlds apart. This in turn plays into broader themes in the story about birth and the feudal system, and the critique of human nature George R.R. Martin creates.

The show, now being ahead in both Sansa’s and Arya’s stories, had the opportunity to call back to that “needle” dichotomy and hit it home for the audience. Sansa should not be abandoning her needle. She should be using it as a weapon, in the same way she uses her courtesy as armor. Sansa can use her ability to sew to dissemble into the crowd and hide herself; she could’ve used her ability to sew to announce herself at the Eyrie as Sansa Stark, coming out to the lords and ladies in a Stark-themed gown. Outfits make statements when the designer knows what she is doing and has the skill, and Sansa certainly is seeded to have the skill. There are hundreds of options for ways Sansa could use her sewing skills to tease out more agency in her situation.

Instead, we get one last weird feather dress and the concept that Sansa no longer will use one of her greatest skills to her advantage. So much for taking control.

Third, what even is this necklace. This looks like a plastic belt buckle. And what even is the explanation of this necklace:

The metal piece is really a miniature of Arya’s sword, Needle, and the idea is that there’s a ring that you stitch through and then that’s her weapon.

What? Is that a full thought? Is that really what we get? It’s her weapon because it’s a miniature of another weapon, and you stitch it through the necklace, so that’s a weapon! This is a professional adult’s explanation. WHAT ARE WE DOING HERE.

I like that she carries it when she descends the stairs, now she’s armed and it’s a link to her family.

You do realize she’s not actually armed. Like, it’s not an actual sword. She’s not even metaphorically “armed” with it. You know what she could be metaphorically “armed” with? Courtesy and a real fucking sewing needle.

The saddest part is the last bit, where Michele Clapton tries so hard to convince me everything was well thought out.

It’s so easy to make someone look strong, but if you don’t think about the story, it’s kind of a wasted gesture. She could have probably looked even more amazing if I had put the reasoned arguments of where it could have come from aside, but ultimately, it makes it a stronger look if it’s a more believable transition.

Sure, Jan.

There’s a few more upsetting quotes from Clapton trying to explain away her shame.

“We’ve always known that Sansa makes her own clothes, so it was a very deliberate decision of hers, to change and say, ‘I’m not going to be pushed around. I’m going to take charge.’”

There’s the unfortunate implication here that being sexy means a woman is “taking charge”. Sansa’s warlock costume is obviously much sexier than she’s ever appeared, and happened just on the cusp of the actor, Sophie Turner, finally being of legal age. The pattern of women using their sexuality as a form of manipulation, and thus a way to take control, on GoT is alarming, discomforting, and sexist. Michele Clapton’s understanding of this costume fits into that pattern.

Clapton drew our attention to Sansa’s necklace, which has a long spike at the end. Because Arya has her Needle, this is Sansa’s Needle. “It’s her chance to take control,” Clapton said. “When she comes down the stairs, she’s playing with it like, ‘This is me, taking control of this situation.’”

Because fondling a miniature “sword” with no power to actually hurt anyone or actually sew is SO powerful and helps her take SO much control.

There’s also the idea that Sansa used raven’s feather on the bodice and shoulders of this dress. See, ravens send messages, and with this dress, Sansa is sending a message to everyone that she a Strong Woman™! It’s really hard to care about these explanations when they’re this stupid. The feathers are ugly. They look sewn on by a machine and they’re still badly sewn on at that.

Even Myranda isn’t convincing when she compliments this dress.

Myranda: I like your dress.
Sansa: Why?
Myranda: I read the script.


Wedding Number Two: Always a Bride, Never a Bridesmaid (trigger warning)

Bowling ahead deeper into season 5, now in the early throws of the Sansa Stark Construct, we get another bizarre costume choice: the linebacker wedding gown. At this point in the show, the Watsonian analysis is basically impossible. I mean, Sansa is marrying into the family that literally killed her own family, for revenge! I can’t really hold the costume department to a higher standard than the fucking story writers.

But just to give it a brief moment, here are some problems with the Watsonian explanation of this dress. (1) Color – again, should be Stark colors for the same reasons as above. Note that this dress got closer – white is one of the colors – but there is no doubt in my mind that the designers put her in white to emphasize her virginity for a modern audience (since we put brides in white and associate that with virginity). We know this was the reason because Sansa’s virginity is confirmed multiple times before the wedding scene, with the entire point of making her rape all the worse and more dramatically satisfying. (2) Lack of cloak – same as above. (3) Style and cut – this dress doesn’t look like anything else we’ve seen. Sansa doesn’t live in a world where experimenting with fashion is cool. She certainly had no input on her dress for her forced marriage as a prisoner. And Winterfell doesn’t have any internships for students from the Metacademy of the Arts.

Plus it’s not like Sansa needs to be this covered. The north can’t be that cold with Myranda rockin’ her unlaced corset and fingerless gloves in the exact same scene.

Actually my favorite part of season 5.

So fuck this Watsonian nonsense – I expended all my honeypotting energy trying to figure out why blue was a Dothraki color. The real meat here, if there is any, is found through the Doylist lens.

Doylist: Everything Comes Back to the Rape

There is no question that the primary driving force behind this creation was Sansa’s impending rape by Ramsay. First and foremost, this is the biggest pattern in the season: that the plot bends head-over-heels to put Sansa in that bedroom with Ramsay. Second, every detail of the costume indicates the purpose of its design. The dress is white. It shows her waist, but is covering her whole body. It isn’t sexy. It has delicate feathers on the shoulder. Sansa’s hair is done in a tight up-do. Everything about it screams “virgin” or “virginal”, to remind the audience that Sansa is “pure” through modern color, shape, covering, and detail.

Michele Clapton said some stupid shit about the dress’s shape being a call back to Sansa’s brother’s and father’s clothes, as a way to honor them or something. It’s another statement by her I’d rather ignore. I mean, don’t all highborn ladies want to look like their fathers’ on their wedding day? And those meta-seamstresses are running out of ideas!

This is a poorly designed, poorly thought-out costume with bad implications. It feeds into the rape-as-drama narrative that ruins this season. On top of all that, it’s an ugly dress. I’ll at least give it this – somebody sewed it. Their skills, however unimportant in this horrid design, are genuinely appreciated.


Conclusion: The Future of the Sansa Stark Construct

I’m not including analysis of the Sansa Stark Construct’s season 6 outfits because (1) I think they will be better analyzed along with her season 7 costumes and (2) none of them are particularly remarkable. We do know that Sansa’a ugly needle necklace is coming back in season 7, and I’m sure I”ll have more to say on the matter at that point.


It should be noted that, as Sansa’s personality shifts through seasons five and six, her fashion senses change. She even decides to go back to sewing once she’s at the wall, and she sews at the speed of light! But it’s not surprising, really – I mean, she’s no longer wearing her warlock costume, so now she’s grown as a character back into her previous sewing ways? Because costume changes show character growth? Seeing as the Sansa Stark Construct goes through multiple character changes scene by scene, she is going to become increasingly difficult to dress.

Michele Clapton is back from her brief season 6 hiatus, and D&D consistently give us dramatically satisfying gold, so I expect the costumes to continue on in their predictably disappointing pattern (no pun intended).

Next on A Song of Pins and Needles will be a close look at Cersei Lannister.

Images courtesy of HBO.
Voted Thanks!
  • Simon

    For my money, the costuming retrospectives are the single BEST pieces of GoT criticism in this site. They’re SO impeccable, all the attention to detail you’ve put on the Watsonian/Doylist levels and how even a cross-stitch can betray a) misunderstanding of the source material b) the writer and director’s priorities in communicating ideas to the audience and c) HBO celebrating itself because that’s what this show’s good at, is astounding.

    There is some talent to this costuming and I want to believe that Ms. Clapton is just one of the legions of people that are backbent completely to D&D’s whims, but after your piece on Margaery and now this one, I am never looking at set design the same way ever again.

    Quick question: Will you extend your coverage to male characters too? ‘Cause I’m thinking St. Tyrion and Larry in particular may yield an interesting take.


    • CarolineBee

      Thank you! I’m glad you enjoy my neurotic ramblings about embroidery haha.

      I will move on to the male characters soon. I also plan to do people groups – for instance, the small folk and sex workers/sex slaves, since there’s some really interesting explanations regarding their costumes given by Clapton. I’m also interested in writing about hair and jewelry specifically. Armor is something I need to do more research on before I can comment on it, but I tend to adore the armor in the show so I expect to do that in the future as well!

      • Mytly

        The flimsy, backless dresses that seemed to be the Official King’s Landing Sex Worker costume in the first few seasons could sure do with some analysis.

        • ACE247

          also that ass-showing Daenerys cosplay this sex-slave was wearing last season (very classy).

      • Mims Dahn

        Would you do one for the Wildlings too? You probably could do for the other ethnicities too. There would be some grounds to do so with Clapton’s ambition to have it resonate with the environment. She has, supposedly, said

        “There’s a big hole that fantasy often falls in,“ she says. “The costumes don’t resonate with the environment.” She says she paid special attention to the nomadic horse riding tribe of desert raiders, the Dothraki and the equally nomadic Wildings, who survive like Eskimos by hunting in the frozen north beyond the Wall. “We try to give the costumes a reality based on the land, climate and the food sources. I want you to be able to smell the costumes.”

        She hopes this episode will show voters how realistically the costumes are designed, how Greyjoys’ clothing protects them from the wind and crashing water on their barren rock isles. She also wanted to show how the wildlings’ garb mimics those of nomadic Inuit-inspired cultures, with decorated animal skins, lashed-together leather, animal bones and skulls worn as battle armor.”

        Source: http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/fash-track/game-thrones-michelle-clapton-costume-designer-emmy-335607

        Like I know there isn’t a lot of GRRM’s own material to work with, but I think these aspiration to and appropriations of real world cultures perhaps creates some? She is drawing on these cultures for designs but she isn’t bringing any of the cultures sophistications to the designs. There are no wood or bone carvings, no patterns etc. Karsi’s necklace, for example, looks like she one day lay down on the shore and the shells was just stuck to her dress by

    • MinaJen

      I kind of wish it was a retrospective on the characters’ costumes from start to now, because I feel like they lost the plot just about when the show lost the plot, so to speak.

      RE: Michelle Clapton, Tom and Lorenzo do a really fascinating anaylsis of her work on The Crown, which is surprisingly deep and layered – which makes me wonder if pseudo Medieval/fantasy isn’t her forte, or if there were mandates and input the might have overrided where she might have taken things.

      • Mytly

        Ooh, Tom and Lorenzo have done a ‘Mad Style’ analysis of The Crown?! How did I not know this?! *Runs over to their blog to read the analyses*

        Huh, Michele Clapton was the designer for The Crown? I would never have guessed that. The clothes are so good!

        • MinaJen

          Yeah, and the motifs and themes that T & Lo point out makes me want to think the Clapton is either more comfortable with modern, or at least, more concretely document costs, she either disregarded the books to create her own set of visual motifs and themes, which is jarring for book readers, or that it’s a degree of interference. …Or maybe all three. It’s not the kids ND of question we’ll get an answer to, I’m afraid.

          There are choices that puzzle, and some I understand (in this instance, not putting Sansa in Stark colors at the PW, which could ring as bridal)- but things like the ridiculousness of DarthSansa seem so blunt and obvious and kind of juvenile.

  • Maidens&Mules

    The worst thing about Sansa wearing purple at the Purple Wedding? In the books, she wears a grey gown trimmed with white fur: the colours of House Stark, with fur for extra Starkiness. Sansa walked into a wedding meant to mark the triumph of the Lannister-Tyrell alliance and the defeat of House Stark wearing her family’s colours. She believes she is going home after the wedding feast and she wants to both mark the occasion and give a final fuck you to her captors. I’m not sure what her wearing purple on the show was supposed to symbolize, or if the creators even thought that far.

    • Simon

      It symbolized that the wedding was Purple. That’s the extent of their visual creativity. They can’t fathom any forms of strength that don’t require physical dominance.

      • Priscilla

        Don’t be unfair: you can always be strong in the sexy way and sexually manipulate your enemies!

        • Jana Wolf

          We so need to coin “Strong in the sexy way” for any and all GoT pieces on this site, dear god.

          • Simon

            Honestly, it’s the perfect title for the newest winter tune: “Strong in the sexy way” by Ilyn Payne ft. Lil’ Finger.

    • Jana Wolf

      The dress is purple because Sophie Turner looks good in purple. The joke is just a nice bonus. She also looks pretty good in that muted pink that most her dresses had in earlier seasons, even though it was a color literally no one else wore that had shit to do with anything… Except pseudo Bolton foreshadowing, maybe? When they don’t even use pink on the show. Gaaaah.

      • Mytly

        The Boltons – especially Ramsay – are Real Men™. They don’t wear pink.

    • Barbara Kateřina

      I mean, if I want to give them the benefit of the doubt, I’ll say it’s because she was to have the purple necklace, so the idea was to make the dress match it, so that it looks inconspicuous and well together.

    • Mims Dahn

      I don’t think it supposed to symbolize anything but how they skim Sansa chapters and their infatuation with everything Lannister. I am perfectly convinced they were not aware what she was wearing at any instances, because that is an outfit the Metacademy of the D§D school would love.

    • MinaJen

      I do think her wearing the vibrant purple was tied to her role in the wedding – and as a way of making her, as well as Margaery, stand out in the Lannister dominated scene.

    • Skye

      Ever since Clapton had Sansa stop wearing Cersei-style dresses she wore nothing but purple. :/

  • Priscilla

    To be honest, I like most of the costumes… for a different show. Most of them are pretty, bit the in-universe reasons for the costume choices are almost as cringeworthy as the in-universe reasons for everything else.

  • SlayerNina Friki

    One explanation for the mis-matched patterns is Sophie’s chest growing suddenly more than expected (my cousin has that problem with her prom dress).

    Why you didn’t talk more about s12-2 dresses? They had the mix Tully-Stark look, but not so horrible as the first one despicted here, and the dresses from KL seems from another lady and Sansa took them because she can’t choose.

    But I love the look for the Eerie. Don’t ask why. She looks like some sort of witch-monk.

    • CarolineBee

      I’m interested in doing a piece about Northern looks specifically, since we get them sort of scattered around the early seasons. Didn’t want to use the early material here!

  • Eternity

    I’m am so confused by Michelle Clapton, a woman who designs costumes for this show, putting down sewing as a skill. Isn’t it like… kind of an important skill to her job???

    • MinaJen

      To be fair, a costume designer, once they reach a certain point, can hand off off designs to the draper, pattern maker, and the sewing grunts

      • Eternity

        I’m not sure that’s better, it actually might be worse. The point is though, no matter who is doing the sewing, someone has to for her job to even work.

        • MinaJen

          Yeah, regardless, if that’s a personal belief, it doesn’t reflect well on her…But it could be an explanation for her thought process vis a vis D&D bullshittery.

          Either way, weird.

          • Eternity

            Yeah any time anyone who works on the show says anything about the show (who isn’t like D&D) I have to wonder if they’re just making stuff up because that’s their job and they don’t want to directly insult the show they’re working on. Which to be fair, wouldn’t be very professional.

          • MinaJen

            I’ve always wondered how hands on director and showrunner’s are with things like costumes and the look of things – whether is a dictate given at the start or final approval – I’ve only ever seen it from designer down to the workshop.

          • Eternity

            I’d imagine it isn’t normally a whole lot, because a showrunner should be really busy and like they should trust the people they hire to do their jobs. If I had to guess they only give a general idea and then approve the design. But there are indications that D&D are kind of unusually controlling, so who knows.

  • Cynical Classicist

    You say the Lannisters don’t want to be associated with the murder of the Starks. But you’re forgetting, barely anybody really cares about the Red Wedding. No hatred from the smallfolk and the Sparrows, no enmity of the Northern Houses, no-one really cares.

    Also there is an overabundance of black clothes in the show. The Stark colors aren’t black. Night’s Watch colors are black. This wearing of black is what TV Tropes calls Flanderization.

    I feel like the costumes are a microcosm of the show. Looks nice, when you think about them they start to fall apart. And the writers have a lot of clothes falling apart because the sex scenes are so relevant to the plot. Evidently a lot of work went into the appearances of the clothes, but by diverging from the books problems arise.

  • Mytly

    The whole ‘min-Needle’ thing never made sense to me. Like, what part of that necklace looks like a needle? Or Needle? It’s round! Needles – and swords, for that matter – are not round! It’s such a stupid explanation – it doesn’t make sense on any level whatsoever.

    • Suou no Nioi

      If you get a really good look at the metal charm at the end of the chain, it’ll kund of make more sense. Kind of. The charm is basically just a spike, though, rather than a decently rendered miniature of Needle. At least from what I’ve seen of it. And you never really see the charm on screen, so the supposed explanation definitely doesn’t read to the audience.

      • Mytly

        Oh, so the ‘mini-Needle’ description doesn’t refer to the pendant? Good grief. I’ve never noticed a charm at he end of the chain. If it was so ~important~ as a symbol of Sansa’s development, why wasn’t it more visible? Why wasn’t the camera focused on it?

        *Sigh* It’s just yet another example of Michele Clapton pulling explanations out of her ass, isn’t it?

        • Suou no Nioi

          It’s almost certainly an asspull, yes. I think the only way I got a good clear shot of the charm was from a photoshoot. It might have been the EW covers from before season 6 aired, the Women on Top ones. Which would make sense, because that was when I realized the Darth Sansa dress was also covered in turquoise eyelash yarn. It was special.

    • Jana Wolf

      There’s a pointy end to her necklace, which is probably supposed to be the weaponized part she could stick people with. Unless, of course, it is her wedding night, because Sansa would never carry a shiv on her… Or something.

  • The Dragon Demands

    I like everything about Sansa’s costume journey through the end of Season 4. After that it gets into the issue of “dear god you randomly invented a rape subplot” which was beyond their specific control.

    “that the plot bends head-over-heels to put Sansa in that bedroom with Ramsay”

    They waved aside that “this isn’t the books”, when even TV-only viewers were complaining in droves that it was nonsense. Not just that they made the rape happen…but that they put *zero effort* into plausibly explaining why it is even happening.

    Serious, non-flippant comparison: imagine if they had Joffrey actually sexually assault Sansa while she was his prisoner. From a *story logic* stand point, yeah, they took her prisoner after he killed her father, and Joffrey is insane.

    But with Ramsay….the “bending over backwards” of…well, the “Sansa Marriage Strike”….that NO ONE ever marries into an enemy house to “destroy them from within”.

    All the more insulting, after months of denial from them, was in Season 6 when they wrote that confrontation scene with Littlefinger, apparently to be “empowering”, but really bluntly admitting “Yup, Littlefinger’s so-called plan we made up last season didn’t really make any sense, did it?”

    Would we be as upset as this….if some way, some how, the Boltons had *captured* Sansa from Littlefinger, like on the highway or something? And then Ramsay raped her?

    Well on the meta-narrative Doylist level yeah….but even those fans addicted to Watsonian-only explanation just could not verbalize what about this made sense.

    This doesn’t have to do with the costumes, however. At that point I just stop paying attention to Sansa.

    You have to understand: with “the Sansa Construct”….

    watch the DVD commentaries.

    It’s jarring, and no one reported on it. D&D honestly don’t realize that they marginalized Sansa as a character, and spend the whole commentary ranting about what a “strong player” she is….when she’s an imprisoned rape victim.

    And after a while you realize….they’re describing THE ACTOR’S PERFORMANCE.

    You see we thought for a while they meant “Strong in the sense of Resilient” ….because we’re not insane. But no, they even describe THEON, crying helplessly at her rape, as “a strong player this season”. That, THAT was the point when I realized “dear god they can’t tell the different between actors and fictional characters”.

    You see an actor can have a “strong” day on set and be a “big player” in the cast, even when they’re being tortured….probably why we got one too many Theon torture-porn scenes. They see this as “showing off the actor’s strong talents”.

    Exemplifying this is that even Jack Bender, who directed the Meta Players of Braavos, explains in the Bluray commentary that he told the writers that he was shocked by the part they included of the audience hating the invented Sansa rape BY TYRION in the play, and thought this was amazing self-candor. Instead, they stared at him dumbfounded, and said it was obviously mocking the baseless criticisms of including rape in the show.

    You see, EVEN NOW, Benioff and Weiss think we’re all made about putting “rape” in Television in general….and, like in that PBS interview from November….rant that they ….actually consider themselves “brave” TV pioneers for depicting rape in all its horror despite the naysayers, AND they handled it tastefully by keeping it off-screen.

    The fact that we’re not complaining about the visuals of rape (it was offscreen), but that they utterly marginalized and disempowered Sansa as a character, TRULY HAS NOT OCCURED TO THEM.

    I mean in the commentary for Season 5, even their line producers are repeating the talking points they drilled into everyone that: “This IS Sansa showing narrative agency, see at Moat Cailin it IS her choice; she chooses to go along with Littlefinger’s plan”…instead of, you know, having her own plan.

    They won’t get away with this unscathed. On a scale of years I mean, their future careers. This will haunt them. We were stunned for a while, but after seeing Season 6 and having no payoff to any of this….we now know what they actually did. We’re building our responses.

    Oh yeah, they had no narrative action for “Sansa” in Season 6 either, because again, they perceive it as “Facetime” for Sophie the actress. Sophie had a “big strong scene” yelling at Ramsay….already defeated and tied to a chair…..and thus “Sansa is a strong player”.

    They have lost all grip on reality and truly cannot tell the difference between Sansa the character and Sophie the actor.

    What gets me the most is….if they had just honestly said “we felt like making Sansa weak and a victim, to later regain her power later”…..that’s the reality they presented.

    Instead we got propaganda, stock phrase after stock phrase, pleading and insisting to us that “This IS Sansa being strong! Because she’s resilient and brave! And it’s agency because she chose to do what Littlefinger told her to!”…..which is of course undercut by saying, DIRECT QUOTE from the rape scene commentary track, “Theon and Sansa are both strong players in Season 5, the critics don’t know what they’re talking about”.

    We’re not just going to abandon this and let them get away without criticism. We won’t shrink away from our principles now. I mean the PBS interview when directly asked about invented rape scenes, Benioff’s IMMEDIATE response was to, in his put-on warm and pleasant voice, “You know the great thing about 400 scripted TV shows a year is that if you don’t like our show you can watch something else”….which is….a screw-you to a journalist who asked you a serious question about inventing rape scenes and marginalizing your female characters.

    Sansa Stark as a character doesn’t exist; nor is “TV-Sansa” a “character” at this point. It’s Sophie Turner in a Sansa costume, “acting strongly” in scenes – which means making a “serious face” emoting with no dialogue. They can’t tell the difference.


    But I’ll soon settle accounts. Have you seen the videos I’ve been posting on my YouTube Channel?

    Because Rhaenyra has an army.

  • Suou no Nioi

    Another great article, but there is one thing I want to point out about the wedding dress.

    When the dress is described as being in Sansa’s colors, that sjould mean Stark colors, in which case the statement would be wrong. But as far as I can tell, the statement is actually referring to Sansa’s tendency to wear those muted greys and mauves elsewhere in the show, certainly elsewhere in that season. So in that light, ths2e mauve in her wedding dress is Sansa’s color. It’s still really stupid for all of the reasons you mentioned, and frankly I’ve also generally disagreed with the visual imagery of that color on Sansa to begin with, but it’s not inconsistent in that regard. Stupid, but consistent.

    What really upsets me on the subject of color and missed opportunity is that, when Sansa is in hiding and pretending to be Littlefinger’s daughter, she could have been in browns. It didn’t even have to be muted browns. They could have been nice, rich auburns and coppery tones. But browns are not used very often, if at all, for nobles im the show, so the change would have been marked. And it would have served a double purpose of reminding the audience that it’s autumn. Because as is, winter seems to be coming out of nowhere.

    Realistically, the show should have been planning their color schemes to transition from summer to fall to winter so that, even if the weather wasn’t showing it, the visual was still there. But with the heavy color filters and low lighting, plus the bizarre overuse of black and other color strangeness, the sense of season is completely lost. Which is rather unforgiveable considering how important the seasons are to the plot (or what should have been the plot, at least) of the story as a whole. It’s a mess from start to finish.

    Side note: I love that the Metacademy is a thing now.

    • CarolineBee

      Does the wedding dress have mauve tones? I read that somewhere and just do not see it myself. It looks like gold on gold to me. And I also never understood the purple theme with Sansa, other than that it’s a pretty color.

      • Suou no Nioi

        Yeah, the brocade of the dress is basically gold patterning on a dusky mauve (tending toward lavender) background. Her earlier dresses were that same dusky mauve color, but I remember them reading with more gray tones instead of the gold. I’d have to double check to make sure that wasn’t lighting, but the mauve is the same or very similar.

      • Suou no Nioi

        Alright, just checked a few photos, and it seem that at least one dress that read as gray and mauve is actually a lavender/lilac color with almost plum purple patterning that was washed out because of lighting or color balance. At least two more are some shade of mauve or purple with maybe gold and I need better pictures all around to confirm. But there was a definite trend of having her in pale purples and mauve tones throughout the season, with and without the gold accents. So yeah, that’s just what they decided Sansa’s colors are. Which gets super creepy when you realize that her colors mirror at least one of Littlefinger’s outfits from season 1. Seriously, check the scene where they meet at the tourney and then look through her season 3 costumes. It’s SUPER GROSS.

        They started her in pale pinks and things, which I think was meant to be a reference to her youth and girlish nature, and then gradually shifted her down to purples as the show went on, then took a hard right into solid black at the end of season 4. Which is fine and all, in a world where color doesn’t have such a strong tie to personal identity and familial bonds. But for this show? Not so much. And that’s a continuing problem for the show. And it’s especially egregious because the show clearly understands that rich colors are the purview of the wealthy, given how often peasants are in undyed clothes or very muted and plain colors. But then they also put the wealthy in muted, plain, and pastel colors? Eh, it just doesn’t fly.

        • Mytly

          Basically, Sansa’s colour choices follow the pattern of a modern tween-teen – she starts off favouring pinks when she is a little girl, then turns to darker colours once she is in her teens, and then abruptly starts wearing black when in the throes of adolescent rebellion. Which would have been fine if the show had been set in 21st century USA. Given that it’s set in a different world with very different relationship to colours (and to adolescence, for that matter), it makes no sense at all.

          • MinaJen

            I do that no there is an argument to be made, however, on how modern color story effects audience perception​ of the characters, and what’s going on. Kind of like how all the blue and white we see Danaerys wear has this Virgin Mary/Madonna feel – reference her miraculous motherhood, and even more white savior BS

          • Mytly

            Oh of course, this is a work of fiction meant for a modern audience, so it should certainly use symbols that the audience can grasp. But as @SuouNoNioi:disqus puts it in the comment below, the in-verse symbolism and the real-world symbolism shouldn’t be at odds in the first place. Sansa wearing all black might signify that she’s growing up or going goth, or whatever the hell it is supposed to symbolize to the audience, but given Sansa’s Northern heritage and the meaning of all-black clothes in Westeros, especially in the North (i.e. the uniform of the Night’s Watch), it doesn’t make any sense that she would choose to wear that.

          • MinaJen

            Yeah, I can agree that there were certainly choices made for the sake of viewers that were poor adaptational choices – and Sansa’s goth look is top among them – her early pastels, less so.

            It’s interesting in that I believe Cersei also had a multi-color wardrobe is season one/earlier seasons, comparatively speaking​, as I can’t quite remember much in latter seasons that was black, red, or gold. But that’s for the Cersei post 🙂

          • Suou no Nioi

            You are absolutely correct. And here’s the real problem. The color progression we’ve seen with Sansa is something *a* young girl would go through. But that doesn’t inherently mean it is something *this* girl would go through. And that’s a recurring problem with these costumes. They tend to favor shorthands for the audience at the expense of believability. And these two things shouldn’t be at odds in the first place. They should work together to create the story. But what we get is a mishmash of modern sensibilities and pretentious descriptions that don’t pan out in either modern or in-verse contexts. It has been exceedingly rare so far to have explanations that reference in-verse rules and actually hold up under scrutiny.

  • MinaJen

    I disagreed a lot with some of your conclusions for the Margaery Tyrell costume analysis, but I can’t argue with a lot of the Sansa stuff.

    Though I think metacademy might be a much, wrt the band, because that’s the sort of vindictive touch I could imagine Cersei directing.

  • Maria Weber

    Re: dyeing old dresses black for “character development” – they did the same thing to Dany’s blue scale dress (from the beloved “we are not men” scene). In 6×09 she’s wearing it on top of the pyramid. Looks like they added a belt or changed up the skirts a bit, but the top is the same, I’m 99% sure. I wondered at first because every dress of hers is made from one of exactly two patterns…

  • Jeanna Martin

    I wonder if most of Clapton & Co.’s decisions in color choice come down to what colors show well on camera and then look great on the actors. Gods forbid that Natalie Dormer would ever wear the actual Tyrell green …


    • Jana Wolf

      I’m pretty sure she wore green on the Tudors at some point. There’s literally no reason she couldn’t pull it off – even better if they had, you know, had her dye her hair the darker shade of brown Margaery’s hair is supposed to be…

    • Suou no Nioi

      The funny thing is that Natalie Dormer looks really good in green. So even that is a pretty flimsy excuse. Either that, or the person(s) in charge of that decision (Clapton or D&D or both), have/has piss poor color taste. Which I would easily believe at this point.

  • Ariella Kahan-Harth

    That warlock costume frustrates me to no end. Honestly, one could see it from a mile away (it’s so conspicuous) and a bastard daughter of Petyr Baelish would NOT be dressing so richly! By the gods, this is even pointed out in A Feast for Crows when Petyr tells Sansa/Alayne that she has to dress more plainly to keep up the charade of her false identity.
    Also, as far I as I remember, black is only worn by ladies in Westeros when they’re in mourning. Interesting that Clapton and Co. didn’t bring that up, seeing as Sansa would be in (private) mourning for Robb and Catelyn. It’d still be a poor explanation if she’d said that, but it would still have SOME ground in the world of the show.

  • Skye

    I love this series, Caroline, so I think I should be honest. I didn’t enjoy this article as much. This piece is not as in depth as I would have liked when it came to the costumes themselves. The Watsonian vs. Doylist analysis is well written and a strong point that I like to have during these reviews, but I would like a little more written about the design itself.

    While I’m not a huge fan of the Northern style we see, I do think that Claptons ideas behind their design were sound (laces on the sleeve make the dresses more versatile for different weather, the fabric is warmer and more reserved, the knots and embroidery were supposed to make up for the fact that patterned silks were either too expensive or too impractical) and I would have liked to see you write on them more.

    I think one of the things that would benefit these reviews as well would be both in-universe and out-of-universe comparisons. (Example) In-Universe: Sansa’s feast dress is consistent with the Northern style, however the fabric, embroidery, and undershirt all make it fancier. Out-Of-Universe: The Northern dresses mostly evoke early Medieval circle dresses (http://68.media.tumblr.com/8710997d5290d81cf4cb699626bda42e/tumblr_inline_n14805zDAS1qggqd6.jpg)…. if that makes sense. I hadn’t read that Clapton compared Sansa’s wedding gown to her father’s style, I was hoping that the short sleeves evoked Medieval Hungary coats (an actually cold place they could pull some of their fashion inspiration from for once…) that would be another example of out-of-universe.

    I know that D&D gave free range on the time period for costumes and they are much more fantasy than historical, but I remember Clapton actually making an effort to appear vaguely Medieval in season 1. Which is to say, I may be asking too much of you. But I feel like analysis is at its best when all factors are discussed and addressed, so I am trying to communicate that to you without sounding mean or not making sense.

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