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Analysis

It’s Time to Get Deep in the Land of Ooo

Szofi

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Let’s just jump straight into it and put it out there that Season 4 is one of the best seasons, if not the best. It has those truly deep implications that Adventure Time became famous for, fantastic character moments and impressive world-building. It’s definitely more serious in many ways than the previous seasons, turning the volume up to eleven and not wasting much time with skippable episodes. It’s also not as complicated as later seasons, which the show was criticized for later on, so it’s like the almost perfect balance. I wouldn’t say it’s AT at its very best because surrounding seasons are just as enjoyable, but Season 4 is definitely a strong one. Nothing will be the same ever again in Ooo after this one.

It begins with the second part of a two-parter, after Season 3′s cliffhanger. “Hot to the Touch” is the first proper story with Finn and Flame Princess and it is the perfect kickstart to their complicated relationship. As Finn keeps chasing after his newest crush, FP is confused and hurt. In retrospect, they honestly couldn’t have had a more fitting introduction, although it did focus a lot more heavily on Finn than it did on Flame Princess, but we’ll have different episodes later on. It was especially interesting to watch Finn struggle with being a hero and also liking this girl, who is a pure force of destruction. It’s obviously a bit wacky that they have this “love at first sight”, but the relationship is far from being an easy ride without complications. The conclusion that they are elemental opposites is not one that’s going to be the major focus of their romance, but at least something to go on.

“Five Short Graybles” is taking it easy in comparison, as the first graybles episode. It established these anthology episodes as short stories centering around different characters with a common theme, and also the breaking of the fourth wall. Cuber appears for the first time, and as innocent as it all is, this is also an impactful episode. “Web Weirdos”, however, the episode that follows might be the least important out of all the Season 4 episodes. While it does have a pretty cool message, it’s one of the more disturbing ones, and definitely not for arachnophobes. I’m tempted to follow this with a GIF, to show why I’m saying that, but I’m not that cruel. “Dream of Love” is the return of Tree Trunks and Mr. Pig, who turns into a more important character than he originally seemed like. Because it is Tree Trunks the story turns unexplainably weird and ends with an elephant and a pig being desperately in love, but hey, what else were you expecting.

“Return to the Nightosphere” and “Daddy’s Little Monster” form another two-parter about Finn and Jake’s journey to the Nightosphere and their quest to find Hunson Abadeer, Marceline’s dad, so that he could tell them how they got there. It’s a good old in medias res where we learn more about the details along with our heroes, while also exploring AT’s own version of literal hell. Hunson’s return, as the leader of the Nightosphere, was a more than pleasant surprise, because a) he’s interesting as a character and b) he helps us learn more about Marcy. Their dynamic is one that still needs to be explored further in the show, as to this day this is Abadeer’s last appearance. What he does in it is prove that he does care about his daughter, he’s just really horrible at showing it and is expecting her to follow in his footsteps, without considering what she wants.

In the end, he is a jerk, but not as much of a jerk as could have been, which sets up a familial dynamic that just begs to be dealt with more. There’s more to these guys than just unfairly eaten fries and these episodes prove it, I just wish that we had more than this. It’s also the reason why I don’t really get why people always write Hunson as the ultimate worst dad ever in fanfiction. Sure, he could be better, he is AT’s own version of Satan after all, but especially taking that fact into consideration he’s not all that bad. What we can see in both “It Came From the Nightosphere” and “Daddy’s Little Monster” is that he’s trying, in his own way. And apart from this relationship, the two-parter also deals with the friendship between Marceline and the boys. They go to great lengths to help her, even Jake, who was more than unsure about her for a long while. The very end with both of them protecting her and Finn turning into Satan to help his friends is especially sweet. I love people caring about Marcy.

“In Your Footsteps” is exactly how you take a standalone and make it crucial to the overall plot. It’s an episode about a bear who wants to be like Finn, but then wants to be Finn, basically replacing him, which obviously leaves our hero upset. In the end he still feels sorry for the bear and gives him the Enchiridion, so that he could be a hero on his own. A sweet tale, but what a twist at the end, with the bear giving the Enchiridion to Snail!Lich. What a way to include a plot point that will be the catalyst of the finale. “Hug Wolf” on the other hand is not the most exciting in terms of plot, but one that starts Season 4′s trend of “how to imply heavy stuff and hide them under not so subtle allegories”. This time around it’s all about so called hug wolves and Finn being one of the victims, but all of it is eerily similar to the rape allegory that we usually see with vampires. As TVTropes puts it, “ “Hug Wolf” is an entire episode of rape metaphors”. Kids’ show, am I right.

Following is “Princess Monster Wife”, which is less subtle with everything that it does, including the last minute implied suicide of the titular character. Before that is an entire episode of Ice King being creepy and stealing his favourite body parts of princesses to create his own perfect wife. The result is what one would expect, a monster whose sight makes our heroes faint immediately. What’s tragic about the story is that this creation seems to have her own mind and feelings, which are of course hurt whenever someone points out how she looks like a monster. Even worse is that despite that Ice King genuinely seems to think that she’s beautiful, and for perhaps the first time in the show he seems to love someone without being creepy about it. That’s why the de facto suicide in the end is so bittersweet, even though Ice King does revert back to a jerk when he finds out about it.

“Goliad” doesn’t let you have nice and fluffy experience either, it’s the first episode that really lets us see the consequences that the Lich had on PB. After she almost died, was possessed, and almost died again she feels like she needs to address the fact that she’s not actually immortal. Seeing how the Lemongrab attempt to appoint a successor went, she creates Goliad. She is supposed to be immortal, all-knowing and the perfect leader for the Candy Kingdom, the only problem is that she proves to be too smart for Finn and Jake’s leadership lessons. How Goliad becomes a terrifying tyrant in minutes is especially thought-provoking keeping Bubblegum’s Season 6 arc in mind. This is when the show started addressing that the ultimate Princess is really not as nice as everyone would assume, and that shows through the idea that Goliad is basically PB’s essence, just like Stormo is Finn’s, which is why he’s so heroic and selfless. Excellent way to show that PB is not over her trauma and to kickstart a whole big arc for her.

“Beyond this Earthly Realm” is what happens when Adventure Time has a reason for going weird, “wizard eyes” being the reason in this case. Visually impressive and another layer to Ice King’s character, but also somewhat of a breather after “Goliad”. “Gotcha!” is some LSP silliness with great moments from the Princess of Lumpy Space herself, and a great message about inner beauty. After these two comes “Princess Cookie”, which is again a heavier one with the show’s most obvious allegory. Through the titular character, AT introduces a bold trans allegory, and although I don’t think I could be the judge of that, I think it did handle the subject matter well. It turns even heavier towards the end with another implied suicide (attempt) and the Candy Kingdom equivalent of a mental hospital, but it also gives some never before seen depth to Jake. I feel the show has this tendency to sometimes ignore him for the sake of giving Finn more development and using Jake as a mere comic relief, but here it’s the opposite.

“Card Wars” is the introduction to the game Jake is obsessed with, which leads to some impressive visuals, but above all it’s the story of true friendship. “Sons of Mars” is the first in the Mars saga, which is something that I never really could understand, to be honest, but maybe now. It’s making Magic Man a much more pivotal character while also introducing space travel, Glob Grod Gob Grob, and space Abe Lincoln. On the other hand, “Burning Low” is an episode I can totally get behind. As one of the best non-Marcy episodes, it destroys the idea of a love triangle between Finn, Flame Princess and Bubblegum before it could even begin and shows us how PB doesn’t have time for this bullgunk. The scenes between FP and Finn are all sweet, contrasted with how the boys behave towards Princess Bubblegum throughout the episode. Thinking that she’s jealous, they disregard everything she says, but they should have known better than to underestimate Bonnibel Bubblegum.

Even if she was jealous (which is hard to imagine in the first place, considering how she rejected Finn), she would still have better things to do than to try and break Finn and FP up. Instead, she has genuine reasons for being against the relationship, one of them being science and the other the safety of the whole world. We also see towards the end the lengths she would go to to keep Ooo safe from this explosive romance, a glance into how PB’s rationality can turn into cold cruelty. But that just shows how the episode is definitely not about some petty love triangle, despite what you might have thought upon seeing the title card. What I love about “Burning Low” is that it finally subverts the whole romance subplot and establishes PB’s stance on it, while also developing the relationship between Flame Princess and Finn without additional drama.

She would know

Even though one of the graybles was about BMO and their mirror friend Football, “BMO Noire” is the first real BMO-centric episode, and considering just how many episodes they’ll have later on, it was about time. In Season 1 BMO was just a background character, and then they gradually became more and more prominent. Season 4 is still not the time to truly explore them and their origins, but at least we have this episode, which combines noir and AT humour. “King Worm” is kind of similar to “Beyond this Earthly Realm”, just turned up to eleven with the visuals and the weirdness. It is a dream episode, and most shows let those pass even if they don’t make any sense. With a show like AT, when not making sense and being weird are cornerstones, a dream episode results in a total mind blow. “King Worm” does have a plot, it brings back the giant worm of “Evicted!” and has him keep Finn in a dream while draining his life energy. After a few classical “a dream within a dream” scenes, Finn realizes that he has to escape by turning it into a nightmare, which guarantees some thought-provoking moments. What “King Worm” also has the liberty to do as a dream episode is throw all the references it can in 10 minutes. Shout outs to previous episodes and foreshadowing to upcoming ones are everywhere, including a vision of Farmworld!Finn and Shoko. It gets incredibly bizarre.

Fortunately, the next episode is more down to Earth. “Lady & Peebles” has Lady Rainicorn and Princess Bubblegum as the main characters as they look for the disappeared Finn and Jake. Seeing their relationship is delightful on its own, but we also get to see the badassness of both, and by the end this episode is what ultimately makes PB a Damsel out of Distress. Sure, we’ve seen her tougher side before and not long ago I was praising her appearance in “Burning Low”. But “Lady & Peebles” leaves us with absolutely no doubt whatsoever that PB has no time for anyone trying to objectify her. This is mainly thanks to the fact that she beats the returning Ricardio into a pulp while giving him a The Reason You Suck speech. This comes directly after a very creepy and suggestive scene that once again makes you question how the show gets past the radar. Also special shout out to Lady for her bizarre Korean sentences (seriously guys, watch translation videos) and for putting up with everything despite being pregnant.

You tell him Peebles

“You Made Me” sees the return of the Earl of Lemongrab and the previously hilariously awkward character takes a dark turn. Ask any Adventure Time fan and they’ll tell you that the Lemongrab stories are Tree Trunks level weird, but more on the disturbing end of the scale, and with every single episode that feeling only increases. This time Lemongrab complains that he doesn’t have any citizens of his own, and so to make him stop watching her own ones, PB bribes three hooligans to move in with him. Many rounds of electroshock therapy in the reconditioning chamber later Bubblegum decides to make another Lemongrab instead, finally understanding that her creation is just simply not capable of caring for other candy people. Yes, that’s right, electroshock and reconditioning chamber, I know. It’s all kinds of messed up and only the very beginning of the Lemongrab saga.

“Who Would Win” pins Finn and Jake against each other in a rather violent sequence of events, but as always, broness prevails in the end. “Ignition Point” is the 100th episode of the series, and it celebrates with the bros going on a mission to the Fire Kingdom, a mission to get Flame Princess her candles. More importantly, it features conspiracy against the Flame King and Finn desperately wanting to believe that just because evil is in FP’s nature that doesn’t mean that a really nice hero guy, someone like him, couldn’t change her. It’s more of a setup than anything, but fun enough as the 100th episode celebration. “The Hard Easy” is definitely a breather after quite a few heavier episodes and before the final few of the season, so much so that there’s not much to say about it. “Reign of Gunters” is a day in the limelight for everyone’s favourite penguin. It’s perhaps unfortunate then that the most intriguing parts of the episode are not really about Gunter, but rather Ice King’s trip to Wizard City and PB’s solution to the problem.

So overall there were heavy standalones, great continuity and lighter episodes, but that all changes with the last two. Both turn Ooo upside down in their own way and it’s mainly thanks to them that there’s no going back to the show’s earlier tone after Season 4. The first of these episodes is of course “I Remember You”, which has the second highest IMDb score (only topped by its sequel episode). Fans of the show don’t need any sort of introduction to “I Remember You”, everyone is painfully familiar with the plot. So because everyone knows already that it’s about the big revelation that Ice King, aka Simon Petrikov and Marceline used to know each other, let’s talk about the details of the episode. The true beauty of “I Remember You” is not necessarily the fact that it did make this connection between two main characters who have never met onscreen before, but how it made that connection.

Realizing what it is about is a slow process, despite the many signs throughout the episode. Even when watching it for the first and without knowing anything about the history between Simon and Marcy, the viewer could guess where it all is going in the first few minutes. The moment Marceline says “I told you not to come around me” you could guess it all. But “I Remember You” is not about the big plot twist that the Simon Petrikov we only found out about a little more than a season ago took care of a young Marceline, so you don’t want to guess it and just get it over with. It’s ten long minutes of your heart gradually breaking with every frustrated sigh Marceline makes, every clueless look from Ice King and every clue that hints at the whole truth. By the time you see Simon give a young Marcy Hambo at the end, you don’t care that this is another confirmation of the Mushroom War, at first you might not even care about the revelation of Hambo’s origins. All that matters is that Ice King and Marceline are singing together a beautifully heart wrenching song (courtesy of Rebecca Sugar, as always) and that “oh Glob, he doesn’t remember, how can he not remember”.

We were all Marcy in this moment

The more you rewatch “I Remember You” the more perfect it is, and not many shows can say that they have an episode like that. The timeline makes more sense each time, Marcy’s whole attitude makes more sense, from her desperate little “no” in the beginning to her disgusted face during “Oh, Bubblegum”. She’s the one person in Ooo who’s actually glad to see Ice King, but she’s so conflicted about it because he’s not the person she knew and she’s definitely not a person he knows, and you can get this all through the animation and Olivia Olson’s voice acting. In many ways, this is such a solemn episode, when where you don’t care about the weirdness and the other wacky characters, all that matters is this personal tragedy between two very old and very tired souls. It’s without a doubt, objectively one of the best episodes of not just Adventure Time, but of Western animation.

You’d think it would be hard to top that with the final episode of the season. Somehow the finale does manage to do so, not emotionally but in many other ways, and it turns out to be a more than admirable end to Season 4. It is one that rewards you for keeping up with the show as it leads Adventure Time into a whole new territory. This episode is the reason why you actually have to be a regular viewer in later seasons to properly keep up with the plot, and although many people didn’t like that, we’ll have time to discuss that when talking about Season 6. For now let’s just say that “The Lich” literally opens up a whole new world. Well, the Lich does. Well, the Enchiridion does.

The antagonist wearing the protagonist’s dead idol as skin. Again, sleep tight

It all starts with Finn’s dream about the cosmic owl, the bear, Billy and Snail!Lich, and then it escalates into a quest for the crown jewels of Ooo. The best scene of all is, of course, that with PB, when she’s just casually mutilating her newest subjects (as you do) and Finn’s determination to get her jewel gets out of hand. You see just then how desperate he is to impress Billy, who is not Billy at all, but the Lich himself. Before he can fully realize he just helped the Lich in his quest to end all life in not just Ooo, but all of existence, him and Jake go after him. The season ends on a giant cliffhanger, where we’re left in the Farmworld with a lot more questions than answers. “The Lich” is one hell of a ride, the fitting end to one hell of a season.

Season 4 truly turned up the volume to eleven. It opened up the space for many different interpretations with various episodes while also building and building the show’s mythology. I would argue that in many ways this season is the defining one for the show. It’s before seasons got longer and more complicated, but after the “weird for weird’s sake” era, bang in the middle of character development and thought-provoking episodes. Season 4 is one you can enjoy whether you’re a regular fan or just someone who likes to see one or two episodes. This is the Adventure Time that everyone praises and this is the reason why all fans swear that it’s more than a silly little kids’ show.


Images courtesy of Cartoon Network

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Analysis

Crazy Ex Girlfriend through a Sondheim Lens

Kylie

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Full spoilers for all 3 seasons of Crazy Ex Girlfriend.

I don’t make my love for Crazy Ex Girlfriend a secret. It’s essentially media wish-fulfillment for me: a musical dramedy with an loudly jewish female protagonist that seeks to deconstruct tropes and storytelling conventions about how women are typically written, served alongside mental health positivity and an optimistic take on humanity. It’s clever, it’s meaningful, it’s unapologetic, and I cannot express how relieved I am that it’s renewed for a 4th and final season—the season that was always planned as its end-point.

So it’s with great chagrin that I’ve got a bit of a “but” to add here. Because while all this is true, I struggled a little with Season 3. It’s not that I found it any less pointed or intelligent, but I did feel that structurally there were issues. Something seemed like it was missing…just some kind of absent je ne sais quoi that the first two seasons possessed. Then there were also some story beats that suddenly appeared, rather than the usual meticulous seeding and build-up to which I grew accustomed.

This isn’t to say I disliked Season 3, because I found a ton of value in it. But I did feel that there was a little bit of prioritization of themes at the cost of a cohesive story. Paula suddenly being the “office bitch”, Heather impulsively agreeing to be Darryl’s surrogate after criticizing Rebecca for the exact same thing… The best example is probably in the finale, where Rebecca pleads “guilty.” In all these cases it’s clear what the writers are going for; Rebecca is being very literally haunted by her past, since you can’t just skate with no repercussions, even you personally take a step towards healing. She wants to atone for all the messed up stuff she’s done, hence her pleading “responsible” initially.

Except she’s an amazing lawyer who surely understands that she isn’t actually guilty of attempted second-degree murder, which is what the charge was. Sure, it’s important to not plead “insanity,” but “innocent” was a perfectly viable option! Pleading guilty, while thematically satisfying and good in a character arc, pushes the scene out of the realm of believability. Even Paula, who was obviously moved by that, probably would have known that there’s a way to repair their relationship that doesn’t involve admitting to a literal murder charge. And yes, the writers seem to know this wasn’t a rational decision on Rebecca part, but it still stretches characterization further than seems advisable.

I guess I’m lucky that all this was only a mild disappointment, but it’s for that reason that I haven’t really written anything on Season 3 as a whole yet. I think my solution was to wait and see the 4th season, because I do still have incredible faith in showrunners Rachel Bloom and Aline Brosh McKenna to close out this narrative in a satisfying and meaningful way. I simply contented myself to let a vaguely outlined piece on the structural issues of Season 3 sit in a Google Doc, where I never touched it. The one time I tried, I ended up writing about how Crazy Ex Girlfriend’s command of diegesis is the model modern musicals should take, because it marries our gritty media realism trend to the dreamlike qualities of musical theater.

And now I realize that was my mistake all along: I shouldn’t have been analyzing Crazy Ex Girlfriend through the lens I use for most TV and movies…I need a musical lens. Specifically, I needed to view Season 3 through the eyes of Stephen Sondheim musicals.

Entering the world of the hat

Before you accuse me of it, yes, picking Sondheim specifically is mostly self-serving. But I have also spent a fair amount of time tracking down interviews and podcasts with Rachel Bloom (she never gives the same exact answer twice—it’s kind of incredible), and can confirm her love of the man too. She’s said her ideal Broadway role would be Dot from Sunday in the Park with George or Squeaky Fromme from Assassins, the latter of which happens to be her favorite musical, too. So I don’t think it’s a stretch to say that Crazy Ex Girlfriend as an art form may have been influenced to some degree by the works of Stephen Sondheim.

Let’s talk about those works briefly, though. Sondheim’s musicals are diverse in subject matter, takeaways, and central themes. However, that’s not to say there aren’t commonalities, or that his style is malleable. While what he’s ‘known for’ often gets boiled down to lyrical cleverness by critics, a stronger feature of his music is that he writes with actors in mind. Emotional queues are almost embedded into his songs. It doesn’t matter what poor sap is singing “Franklin Shephard, Inc.”…the strength of the phrasing and flow lends itself to the breakdown in a way that is always going to be convincing.

Then, I can’t state this any better than Elaine Stritch and Bernadette Peters, but Sondheim consistently has lyrical depth. His songs are gut-punches usually, but layered gut-punches at that.

His melodies are a bit unconventional, in that you’re unlikely to be able to sing his songs the first go-around. Contrast that to Lord Andrew Lloyd Webber, who can generally write tunes you’re able to pick up by the final verse. Of course there’s exceptions, but if you want an at-home experiment, see how well you follow the melody of this versus this.

You can tell just from interviews that Sondheim is a perfectionist, a horrible overthinker, and permanently never fully satisfied with the end result. If you’ve had the pleasure of reading Finishing the Hat and Look, I Made a Hat, he spells it out on the page in a way that bridges aspirational and concerning.

His neuroses are not incredibly dissimilar to Rebecca Bunch as a protagonist. It’s perhaps for that reason that the themes he tends to like exploring are shockingly relevant to the show. I don’t think it’s constructive to give you a laundry list of all of them, but typical features of Sondheim musicals include family strife, ambivalent views on love and relationships, obsession (of self, others, or ways obsessive behavior unfolds), and disillusionment.

Otherwise known as Crazy Ex Girlfriend Season 3.

Reaching through the world of the hat like a window

When I first began thinking about the last season through a Sondheimian lens, it was thanks to a song added to Merrily We Roll Along after its unsuccessful first broadway outing:

So, old friends, now it’s time to start growing up. Taking charge, seeing things as they are. Facing facts, not escaping them; still with dreams, just reshaping them. Growing up.

It often annoys me when stories are described as “coming-of-age” tales for adult characters. For instance, the dialogue surrounding Kylo Ren complete with The Last Jedi writer/director Rian Johnson saying he was transitioning from “adolescence to adulthood” was particularly grating, since it felt a little like robbing him of his agency as a fully grown man who is also a fascist and makes these messed up choices on his own accord.

At the same time, Crazy Ex Girlfriend is very much about Rebecca Bunch coming into her own as an adult—coming to understand her identity specifically by shedding her childish idealization of romance and fairy tales. Hell, she takes responsibility for herself for really the first time at the end of Season 3. But the thing is, as Sondheim eloquently puts it, “Growing up, understanding that growing never ends.”

This is something hammered again and again by the show. We need look no further than Darryl or Paula to see that they’ve more than delivered on definitive adults who still are pushed towards betterment and maturity. Darryl is impulsive and too lead by his feelings, and he learns not to go to the extreme with his ideas while still acting on his wants. Paula meets Rebecca when she’s in a complete rut, discovers the absence in her life due to her lack of risk taking, and pursues her law degree. Rebecca herself is never treated like an adolescent free of agency; any infantilization that occurs is of her own doing (see: the introductory song in Season 2), and ultimately to her detriment.

It’s for this reason I thought about how Crazy Ex Girlfriend perfectly meshes with Merrily We Roll Along, at least in its second act (which happens first chronologically). Rebecca is the Joe, with her idealized dreams that come crashing down. However “Growing Up” reaches a drastically conclusion for her; where Joe allows himself to be swayed/seduced by Gussie that leads him towards an empty path—one where he shirks responsibility and commitment to his friends—Rebecca rejects Nathaniel and prioritizes absolution from Paula instead. The choice offered was nearly the same, yet the choosing leads to wildly different, and more uplifting outcomes (ironically as she’s facing years in prison).

Where this analogy falls apart is that the tragedy of Merrily We Roll Along is in the backwards timeline of the play; we see our main cast get happier, and freer, and full of hope knowing that things end up with the bitter end of their friendship. Crazy Ex Girlfriend is the would-be the opposite experience, where we see our central character in a healthier place, even if it may be a bit more of a serious and adult place. Rebecca was never *happy* to begin with, so much as she’d delude herself. In fact, part of the reason she’s so drawn to Josh is that he’s happy to get to that level with her.

Disillusionment itself, along with the theme of taking responsibility, is something straight out of Assassins. The entire musical serves as a deconstruction and break-down of the American dream through the eyes of history’s presidential assassins (would-be and successful). However in each of their cases, there’s a reason they did it…something blame. They did it to make their friends listen, or because they were told they’d be ambassador to France. Obviously Rebecca is a far more stable person than a murderer, but we do see a similar determination to rationalize her behavior, particularly in Season 1. If she does bad things (like literal stalking) in the name of love, it’s okay, right?

Of course, she’s a good guy whereas the assassins are, you know…assassins, which is why she rejects the mutual conclusion that they come to in “Another National Anthem.” She wasn’t just screwed by the system, or romantic rivals, or even her mental illness. She is fully responsible for what she does, and those actions have influence on others.

It’s actually a collective responsibility, as she’s been aided over the years, mostly by Paula. Rebecca taking the out Nathaniel offered would have impacted Paula most of all, sending the strong message that there’s no need to ever own up to your shit if you can justify it well enough. Nothing is ever anyone’s fault, right? I mean, she was given those beans; they persuaded her to trade away her cow for beans. And without those beans there’d have been no stalk to get up to the giants in the first place!

Except like in Into the Woods, placing the blame and passing the buck gets rejected. No one is alone in the sense that responsibility is never individualistic. Rebecca owning up to her past is the first step in healing the circle around her. “Fight for their mistakes, everybody makes…one another’s terrible mistakes.”

In some ways, that’s the note I expected Crazy Ex Girlfriend to end on. Yet there’s a Season 4, and more story to be told. If Into the Woods is the direction, then I suppose it ends with a group number to the same effect. Yet we have other Sondheim options into which we can delve.

I should quickly point out that while A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum is parodic in a way Crazy Ex Girlfriend is, the comparison for that particular musical ends there. And Rebecca had her Sweeney Todd revenge story as a Scary Scary Sexy Lady, so we can probably rule those out. And unless she becomes the Mayor of West Covina or spends the entirety of Season 4 bemoaning the loss of spoken Yiddish among jewish populations in the US, I’m quite certain we can rule out Anyone Can Whistle and Pacific Overtures too.

What does that leave us with? Well, there’s Follies, where Sondheim holds neurotic self-indulgence under a lens. There’s also a love trapezoid of doom, which was carefully picked apart in Season 2. Oh and the musical numbers within the show are pastiches. The influence this had on Crazy Ex Girlfriend almost slams you over the head, particularly when it boils down to two couples discovering unpleasant truths about their pasts and presents. The collapse of innocence isn’t something that’s going to be hand-waved by this show, though I have to imagine the ending may be slightly more uplifting. There is a self-consciousness to the show that mirrors the attitude of Sunday in the Park with George, but given how wildly different the demons are that Sondheim was working out to the type of bubbly, expressive character Rebecca is, it’s hard to draw many parallels. And I have to assume time-travel is off the table.

Which leaves us with the two incredibly relationship-focused musicals: A Little Night Music and Company. Where the former is concerned, the ending isn’t incredibly. In fact, the musical itself isn’t incredibly deep, though the score certainly is. Sondheim originally didn’t even want to write it after reading Hugh Wheeler’s book he was to use (a friend talked him into it since he was given free rein on the music). Basically, a bunch of people realize who they’re actually in love with and commit to each other in the end.

This…could happen. But I’d be lying if I said I wouldn’t find it odd. It’s not that I don’t understand shipping Rebecca and Josh or Nathaniel, but it would just seem so uncharacteristically cliched if the end spot was “ho hum we’re all happy now because love.” Rebecca is certainly deserving of love, and her very visceral fear of intimacy is distressing; I’m hoping she comes to a healthy place with that. And that could necessitate her ending up with someone. But the tone of that would, I’m guessing, be worlds different from say, the tone of Henrik and Anne running off.

However, it’s Company that I believe offers the best solution. This is a concept musical of Sondheim’s that loosely follows a commitment-phobic man in his 30s struggling to understand relationships. Bobby learns a lot from his married friends, and ultimately comes to a place where he realizes he’s open to love and all the messiness it entails…as much of a pain as it is. He goes from bemoaning convincing a woman to stay longer than just a night, to being okay with a very safe and deluded idea of marriage, to being willing to have emotionally vulnerability in a relationship.

Rebecca Bunch is almost the exact opposite of Bobby. She comes in willing to crowd someone with love (and wanting to be crowded herself) to the point where she romanticizes her not-so-bright former crush and West Covina, California. It’s her obsession in the way it’s Bobby’s phobia. Yet I think there’s a way for those two character arcs to converge. In fact, Bobby’s “Marry Me a Little” ambivalent fantasy is not dissimilar to the idealized outcomes Rebecca imagined in a marriage with Josh.

“And then, in a wonderful way Everything in the past will just fall away My daddy will love me And my mommy will love me And Josh will love me and then I’ll never have problems again.”

In both cases, neither of them had the concept of a sustainable relationship really understood…just what they’d get out of it. Then they both kept growing.

Rebecca obviously doesn’t need a “Being Alive” moment in that she’s never needed convincing to open herself to love. But she does need to open herself to vulnerability. If she finds someone, it’s someone she has to recognize is as frightened as she is of being alive, and that’s okay. Because it’s not about love curing everything, but about healthy relationships that allow you to grow individually.

“Somebody make me come through, I’ll always be there.”

This is the spot that Rebecca seems destined to reach. She’s a good person, right? Well there’s nothing more to that point than taking healthy approaches towards relationships, romantic and platonic alike. She deserves both and shouldn’t fear either, but instead must learn to trust in herself to be okay getting there.

Which is exactly what Season 3 set up.


Images courtesy of The CW

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Analysis

The Antagonists Are Back in Sorceress of Darshiva

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Image Courtesy of Penguin Random House Books

In my last article I said that there weren’t concrete antagonists in Demon Lord of Karanda. Well, this book solves that problem, providing antagonists in spades. Sorceress of Darshiva, published in 1989, is the penultimate book of the Mallorean. It also brings a sense of danger and threat from our actual antagonists rather than secondary ones. Yes, Zandramas actually shows up in this novel. And as more than just a shadow at that, and it’s everything the series needed. Eddings also does some fascinating stuff with un-rooting the Angarak people from the systems introduced by Torak. Overall, Sorceress of Darshiva is one of my favorite novels in the whole series, and for good reason.

Spoilers for all of Sorceress of Darshiva, and all of David Eddings’s previous books.

What Happened?

Sorceress of Darshiva starts with our protagonists following Zandramas to Melcene. Melcene is a series of islands that house the commercial trading center of the east, and Silk is very at home there. Belgarath, Garion, and Beldin meet Senji, a clubfoot alchemist. He accidentally discovered sorcery in an attempt to turn lead to gold. Senji has one of the three original copies of the Ashabine Oracles. It’s a McGuffin that they’ve been chasing for two books now, and the payoff is excellent, and will be discussed in depth below. Senji also tells them that Cthrag Sardius was kept at the University for a number of decades.

After the meeting with Senji, the company finds out that Zandramas brought Baron Otrath with her when she left Melcena. He’s a cousin of Zakath’s, and Zandramas plans to use him as the Angarak king for the prophecy. We also see several POV changes in this period. Queen Porenn calls a meeting of the Alorn council upon receiving news of what happened in Mallorea. The Council decides to fake an alliance with Urgit to bring some of Zakath’s attention off of Darshiva and his attempt to location Garion and company.

Eventually, Zakath recaptures Garion and company traveling through Darshiva, on their way to Kell. Cyradis persuades him to join them, and they continue on their way to Kell. Zandramas fights with the ghost of Poledra, Belgarath’s wife. Durnik smashes two demon lords and is officially a disciple of Aldur. At the very end of the book, Garion picks up she-wolf and her cub. Belgarath and Beldin remember that Grolim’s can’t enter Kell and that the location of the Place Which Is No More is in Kell. They deduce that they are finally ahead of Zandramas, and the book ends.

Three Antagonists

Torak, the Dragon God of Angarak

The novel begins with a prologue from a Melcene history book. It details the foundation of the Melcene nation and how it fused with the Mallorean Empire. Considering that it provides a summary of those nations since the beginning of the world, it obviously mentions the now dead god. It’s been discussed before about how it’s the systems that Torak set up that are evil, not the people in those systems. This prologue shows that in effect. The historians describe Mallorea and Melcena as almost a utopia before Torak shows up before Vo Mimbre.

“A reign of terror descended upon Mallorea. … In one stroke, Torak’s disciples overturned millennia of military and bureaucratic rule and returned absolute dominion to the Grolims.” (p. 6).

This moment shows most clearly how it’s the systems that Torak set up that Garion and company despise. The forced conversion, which parallels a Western view of the totalitarian communism of the USSR. Generational indoctrination is a powerful thing, and it happened at Torak’s behest. The god who wears a mask made of iron and cracked the world.

But Torak also shows up outside ancient history. When Garion finally finds a copy of the Ashabine Oracles, he discovers that Torak directly addresses him. Belgarath calls it Torak’s one moment of sanity. It tells Garion that “what is foretold in these pages is an abomination. Do not let it come to pass.” (p. 95). Torak admits that his side winning is an abomination and tells his would-be killer to stop it. Then, later, he destroys it. It’s the willful self delusion that forms the central critique of the Soviet Union. That it broadcast the idea of the communist ideal while being otherwise.

Zandramas, the Child of Dark

In addition to the dead Child of Dark, we see the current Child of Dark as well. They’re both antagonists, and they both have the same place in the prophecy, but this book makes them distinct. It does this by exploring Zandramas’s history and by actually giving us two glimpses into her point of view.

In Zandramas’s point of view, we see constellations rise beneath her skin. Zandramas attributes this to the Dark Prophecy exerting more of it’s power over her. We can see that she’s terrified. These moments also allow us to see Geran, the emotional center of this, for the first time since the first book. We see that Zandramas makes sure he’s taken care of, but doesn’t want him inconveniencing her. She leaves his care to Naradas and another priestess.

Zandramas’s terror and her overall plan, as discovered by her history, make her distinct from Torak. She began life as a priestess of Torak, working under Naradas. Then, after Torak died, the Dark Spirit took control of her, and she ran wild for years. When she returned to the temple, she charmed everyone into working for her. She preached that a New God would come and she would be his bride.

Torak always wanted to be the center of everything. Kal Torak literally means king and god. He dominated Angarak and demanded human sacrifice, but he wasn’t ever loved. Garion won because of that. Zandramas learned from the Dark Prophecy’s mistakes. She doesn’t want to be a god, she just wants to be the power behind the throne, both secular and spiritual. This corresponds to the transitional period of communism, where the USSR traded with capitalist countries before it collapsed.

Cthrag Sardius, the Sardion

Juxtaposed against the human motivations of our other antagonists, we see the Sardion. This book solidifies what the Sardion is. In essence, it’s the evil counterpart of the Orb of Aldur. The two stones were originally one stone, but they were divided and now they war against each other.

But, unlike the Orb of Aldur, a band of ‘savages’ found the Sardion and their generations polished it, like Aldur polished the Orb. Eventually the Melcene Empire collected it for their library, and it stayed there for millennia. Then, when the Battle of Vo Mimbre happened on the other side of the world, a historian stole it. His ship sank, and the Sardion with it. Cyradis told everyone that the Sardion is in the Place Which Is No More, where the final meeting will take place.

But the real horror of Cthrag Sardius lies in what it will do to Geran. One of the requirements for the final meeting is a sacrifice. In this case, it’s a person who will hold both the Orb of Aldur and the Sardion in their hands. With the both of them they’ll have unlimited power to reshape the world. The new god of Angarak will either heal the world, or destroy it utterly. Zandramas wants Geran to destroy the world and make it in the image of the Dark Prophecy.

It is that image, Geran with both stones in his hands, that so terrified Torak. That is why Garion might have to kill his only son. The idea of the world falling to communism routinely terrified people during the Cold War. They taught their children to glorify America, as the anti-communist utopia instead. Geran’s eventual fate takes that and twists it in a way that horrifies the characters and the readers.

The Final Un-Rooting of Systemic Evil

Secular

One of the subplots in Sorceress of Darshiva is how Urgit manages to finally reject and exile Agachak. He lays down the law, and Cthol Murgos transitions to one where the church’s, and Torak’s, lingering influence diminishes. Previously, Urgit’s advisors, including Agachak and his father’s generals, ruled his behavior. Now, after some advice from Garion, he’s managed to root them out. Agachak goes to the absolutely stupid Gethel of Thull, and convinces him to join him in Mallorea. But it’s still a victory for Urgit and for the light. It’s the proactive nature of someone who won’t be controlled again, and who won’t allow his country to be controlled either.

Urgit also has a victory in his pseudo-alliance with the Alorns. While on the Alorn side, it is purely a diversion for Zakath, on Urgit’s side it’s something more genuine. He wants peace with his ancestral enemies, and he’s taking steps to secure it and to step further away from the dark.

Zakath’s transition to the light also takes place in this book as well. Once he recaptures Garion and the rest, Zakath originally wants to send them to Mal Zeth. With Cyradis’s command, that changes. Cyradis reveals that Zakath is the Empty One, another figure of prophecy on the side of the light. After a few moments of internal conflict, Zakath agrees to go with them. Immediately afterwards, it’s like a personality transplant. Zakath, Emperor of Mallorea, had been grim and shied away from doing violence himself. Zakath, friend of Garion, can only be described as Arendish. Laughing at everything, getting into every possible fight, and with some other indefinable Arendish quality to him. He’s acting like someone from the ‘civilized West’ rather than someone from Angarak, and that speaks to this unrooting.

Sacred

The un-rooting of Torak’s influence also plays out on sacred grounds as well. While Garion and company travel through Peldane and Darshiva, they see many different temples. All the masks above the temples, that once showed Torak’s face, are now blank. Urvon and Zandramas fight all through Peldane and Darshiva over who the new god will be, but this change says more than that. It’s a preparation for a new god, either Urvon, Geran, or whoever Garion chooses.

It’s not only the people preparing for a new god, the possibility of the new gods are also preparing. Before their capture by Zakath, the company winds up in an abandoned farmhouse for shelter. An old Grolim comes to them, and offers them food and hospitality. He talks about how he heard the voice of the new god, and now he decorates the altar with flowers and repents everything he did for Torak. He believes that the Light god prepared him to be its first disciple. A Grolim, someone inside the power structure determined as evil, repenting and being a driving force for good is new, and excellent for the philosophy of the work.

The current existing Prophecy makes an appearance shortly after the Grolim disappears and says all of this. He then goes on to say, “when Destiny is reunited, there should be a new voice. … Millions of years of enmity between us have warped our perceptions a bit … I’m not suited to deal with a united universe. I’ve got too many old grudges. The new voice can start out fresh without any preconceptions.” (p. 146). Those grudges and preconceptions are exactly why Eddings is being so careful to change the perception of the Angaraks by characters and readers alike. To accept the fictional and actual antagonists as people.

In Conclusion

In 1989, Eddings published Sorceress of Darshiva and the Berlin Wall fell. That symbolic fall prophesied the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. There’s no mistake in the fact that he combines the final moments of un-rooting with preparations for a future afterwards. This book focuses heavily on the antagonists, yes, but it also finalizes that change in the people previously stigmatized by their association with them. That Torak’s moment of sanity, Zandramas’s fear, Zakath’s acceptance, and Agachak’s banishment all occur in the same book is important.

It signals all of that preparation for the future. By showing the quasi-human nature of our antagonists, except the Sardion, it makes the readers more likely to accept their followers as people with hearts and souls. By un-rooting the enemies turned allies from the systems that made them enemies, it does the same thing. That this all happens the year the Berlin Wall fell is hyper significant. It’s a symbolic gesture, yes, but symbols and stories mean things. Who better to know that than an English teacher with a predisposition for archetypes? Eddings may not have realized that he was writing a metaphor for the Cold War, but it’s there in his symbols and his philosophy nonetheless, especially here, and especially now.


Image Courtesy of Del Rey Books

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Analysis

Dr. Strange May Be A Truly Cult Movie

Angelina

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dr strange cult

Watching Dr Strange was a truly strange experience for me. I sat before the screen expecting two hours of mindless fun as I watch a self-absorbed jerk become something like a decent guy. You know, this ever-present and ever-satisfying “break the haughty” narrative. A safe bet, not too harsh on the haughty (it’s MCU, after all), but harsh enough we cheer him getting his comeuppance. What it turned into, was two hours of flashbacks as I watched a haughty jerk being broken and brainwashed into a cult.

Probably I wouldn’t react that badly if this experience was not something from my personal past. Things I saw at the screen were excruciatingly familiar. I couldn’t help rooting for the jerk, because I knew all too well what it is, feeling that you are nobody, that the world is crumbling around you—and then being handed something like a power over it.

And while I am sure that it was nowhere near authorial intent, I couldn’t help wondering how many people—impressionable, vulnerable people—would buy into the narrative and turn to some secret knowledge to cope with their illnesses or insecurities. After all, Kamar Taj, both in appearance and in teaching, is very far from fantasyland. You can find dozens of wannabe Ancient Ones just around the corner, waiting for easy prey.

Yeah, sounds very purple, but let me show you why am I so agitated.

What Is a Cult?

A cult—also a totalitarian cult, toxic cult or destructive cult—is a religious or posing as a religious organisation which teachings and practice are designed to achieve and execute total control over its members’ life and death. Not quite a lucid definition, and that’s why the thin line between a cult and a new religious movement is so thin. The subject is controversial, the “cult” word is thrown around as a slur and generally only time we can safely use the definition is, while talking fiction or the cults that 100% exposed themselves as such via some drastic action. Mass suicide or terrorist attack, usually, and sometimes both.

But still there is a list (several lists, but they mostly talk the same things in different wording) of traits that may alarm you that the group is most probably toxic. Let me show how astonishingly well Kamar Taj fits the criteria. Then I’ll try to demonstrate how typical dr Strange’s situation actually is and what usual manipulative tactics were employed to guarantee his loyalty. I’ll use the list provided by M. Kuzmin in his thesis.

1. A Teaching that Rationalises and Encourages Control and Manipulation

They don’t just brainwash—they do it for the greater good and to prevent lesser ones from slipping on the path to salvation. Or something like that. It is prime trait of a toxic cult; a pity it is not easy to see it through, as the real teaching is not revealed until a person is considered “ready” (read: is totally broken).

Through the movie we hear Mordu describing his own path into Kamar Taj. He tells how he went there to get weapons and training sufficient to fight his foes and was promised to get those. Then he was made to go through usual training routine until he understood that his past—name included—was nothing and Kamar Taj was everything and he is destined to be its adherent. Though he recognises manipulation, he not only completely justifies it, but also expresses hope such would be dr Strange’s fate, too.

dr strange cult

I have some questions why non-White people comprise the blindly devoted part of Kamar Taj, but that’s a different matter

And indeed, no one in the Kamar Taj is anywhere near ashamed of stringing along a desperate disabled person with promises of healing all the while basically training him as a cannon fodder for future battles.

2. The Leader, Regarded as an Absolute Unquestionable Authority

While there are some cults that have group leadership, this figure is almost inevitable when we talk about the cult, as they are built around them. The guru may proclaim themselves a literal god (or God), as Shoko Asahara or Maria Devi Christ did, or a prophet, as Jim Jones. They can even settle for indefinite “possessor of the knowledge”, as Marshall Applewhite. No matter what they chose, entire existence of the cult depends on their very person and something only they know or can do.

Does Kamar Taj have such a person? Oh, certainly. The Ancient One is just that; an absolute, infallible guru who is right even when she is actually wrong, and whose actions are not for the lesser minds to judge. She wields absolute authority over her acolytes and can make them fight using real weapons or even leave for dead on a whim. All the while the very idea that she may be wrong is a heresy for the loyal Kamar Taj members, and a sign something is “unwell” with the person in question.

3. The Teaching Changes When Situation Changes, But It Is Never Acknowledged

They promised us the world’s end and it didn’t come? Oh, you see, it was not the real end. It was never about something like that. Or better: yesterday they taught absolute monogamy, but now the guru is caught cheating. So, as the guru is never wrong…

Well, we have an entire plot point, no less, dedicated to this exact rule of cult. So, the entire Kamar Taj had existed for ages on a premise that Dark Energy is bad and corrupting and everything Dark Dimension is vile. But lo! The guru used dark energy to sustain her all those innumerable years! She must be a crank, then? A liar, who forbid her loyal acolytes the thing she had been doing all along?

Nah. No way, You see, the rules exist to break them and cheat, and if you think the rules that you were manipulated to accept as a final truth matter, you are our next bad guy.

Or was it an instance of the next cult rule?

4. Each Subsequent Hierarchical Level Is Granted a Different Version of “Truth”

Basically this is the most glaring distinction between a religion, whatever new, and a cult. You join a religion, and you know what does it teach and what do you subscribe to. If it was one god, three goddesses and a ritual cup of tea every three hours when not asleep, that’s it all along. With a cult, you join for a god, three goddesses and a cup of tea, but then learn that it’s not tea but actually vodka, and when you progress in the ranks you may learn that there is one goddess and no god at all, and then – that gods are nothing, only guru matters. And then something.

The teaching of Kamar Taj does change from rank to rank, too. You come to them because they are healers and martial artists. If you are fit for them, you learn about astral and the source code of the Universe. Next level, and you learn the purpose of Kamar Taj is to protect Earth from a certain other dimension and you have to obey strict rules unless you would harm our world. Even next level, and the rules matter nothing and result is all. And then something.

And Others

To save time and space let me not delve into other very fitting criteria—like having a teaching that combines syncretic religion with pseudo-science, that justifies and even encourages violence towards critics and ex-members of the cult, that encourages active service in “do whatever you are told” way… Kamar Taj is already cult-like enough.

But nothing proves it as well as main character’s story. Just look for yourself.

Cult Brainwashing 101

So, we have a man in his late thirties/mid-forties, the age of crisis. This man suffers an accident and is now disabled. As his only profession requires the very ability he’s lost, he searches for rehabilitation and encounters a rumour of miraculous healer. Desperate, he goes for it and gradually becomes an active member of a group that presents itself as Earth’s only hope and secret guardians. He never heals and is never able to go back to work. Also, he leaves the world forever, going on to live on the group’s premises.

Huh, sounds familiar, doesn’t it? But it can get worse.

dr strange cult

A visual metaphor for severing all ties with your past life—a “must do” for any cultist

Our hero roams the world in search of the healer, until he encounters a group of thugs. Those thugs beat him violently and destroy the last memento of his previous life: his wristwatch. Only then a member of the group intervenes and quickly saves the day. He waits, because he was told to wait. Because apparently our hero needs…something. Do you know what? He needs to lose everything and to be on his utmost vulnerable when presented with the cult teaching—and to be thankful for help. While not too common, the tactic is widely employed irl. It ensures bigger susceptibility of the adherent-to-be through combination of humiliation and gratitude.

Also, the very exhaustion he suffers because Kamar Taj remains hidden from him is quite helpful, too. Exhausted people are not quite able to think critically, as analysis and logic require much energy and all energy they have goes to sustaining them alive and upright.

And Then Some

dr strange cult

The least acid moment

Moving on, our hero is presented with some mumbo-jumbo and then graced with a very, VERY acid vision. While here it’s magical in nature, it would be literal acid irl. Secretly feeding newcomers with hallucinogens is a very, very common tactic of those cults that emphasise and promise secret knowledge and spiritual experience. Bright, wild hallucinations make people believe that they were granted visions and have some supernatural power in them.

So, our hero’s weakened mind is bombarded with mumbo-jumbo, followed by acid visions “proving” the mumbo-jumbo is actually true. Nice. But not perfect. To add a final touch, our hero is cast away and left on the street with nothing but his clothes, broken watch and a promise of miraculous healing. He has nowhere to go but to the c… Kamar Taj. But the Ancient One knows her manipulation 101 and makes him yell, beg, despair. He has to wish for acceptance with all his heart, to see no other way. He must beg, because nothing is as effective as humiliation.

Except for a death threat, of course. Being humiliated AND left in a mortal peril is much better. Do I need to remind our hero is subjected to it?

Conclusion (Or Lack Thereof)

My goal was not to imply the authors of the movie did all that on purpose. Never would I even dream of such a thing.

What I actually think is, that the authors used the same tropes the real-life cults use in recruiting new members and promoting their teaching. Those tropes are widely popular in popular culture—which is actually the very reason the cults use them. Familiarity is quite important when encountering something new. Things already at least seemingly familiar attract much more trust and attention than completely new ones.

Combined with several instances of what I consider authorial tone-deafness, this lead to a load of unfortunate implications. As with Thanos, the end result is horrifying idea no author would’ve supported as it is, but accidentally promoted.

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